I received a message over Xbox Live with a code and it is gone, and I cant get my next ranks in Halo 4, is there a way to get another, or get the old one, and way wasnt it sent to my e-mail, or just a general update?
That is the spec code and you must check your spam folder immediately.
If it couldn’t be delivered to your email address, likely due to a wrong email being set as your contact email via Xbox Live account preferences, they sent it as a Live message to your gamertag.
Once that is deleted, unfortunately… that’s it, that’s all. There is no way to recover deleted Xbox Live messages.