What is Halo 4 Specializations

What r Specializations ?

Kind of like choosing a class in a RPG. You choose it, then it gives you a special power, and then when you level it up, you get armor, helmets, patterns for your guns.

Specializations are added to the game to give players new methods for controlling how they play. They have advantages and disadvantages.

bsangel discussed them last week in the update.

Update

I apologize if this has been answered already, I just didn’t find it anywhere…
I am looking for a little clarification; when I choose a specialization (let’s say pioneer) am I granted the associated perk for the duration? Or is it granted at the end of upgrading?

Also, after upgrading Pioneer to full, would that perk be available apart from it’s armor set? In other words could I compose an armor set from pieces and then apply a perk afterwards?

Basically a few paths to unlock a few specialized armor pieces and such after reaching lvl 50.

Essentially raising the level cap to 130 I believe, adding replay value and giving you the chance to specialize in a specific playing style and earn some rewards for that.