Technically there was no fall damage in Halo 2, a bug allowed fall damage to exist but it has since been corrected.
As for fall damage and the people who have survived it:
Noble Six - fell from orbit after being thrown from the Corvette by Noble Five. He/She survived by way of re-entry pack and had a noticeable limp until they made it to the next mission in which they are still considered wounded given your lowered health.
Master Chief - survived the fall from the Dreadnought only because he used a door as a heat shield so he wouldn’t burn up in re-entry (which may have also cushioned his fall or at least lessened the impact). However, even he had to shake off a bit of collision damage that we just do not see in the game. Whether this was an oversight, impossible to imitate at the time in a considerable amount of time without issues, or just Chief’s unwillingness to show weakness, we’ll never know.
Jerome-092 - Jerome-092 jumped from the Banished Cruiser after infiltrating and attacking the Ark to coerce the defense stations to take action. How Jerome-092 survived his freefall from the Enduring Conviction is honestly anyone’s guess. I haven’t seen anything pointing to an answer so far.
Most MJOLNIR grade armors before Gen 3 were not rated for re-entry without a re-entry pack. It was said that any attempts made would lead to a high chance at perishing from the fall. The fact that Chief and Six survived freefalls (essentially) is either some super thick plot armor with a lot of padding or sheer luck smiling upon them. Jerome-092 is another story since we don’t know what happened after he jumped from the EC.
Regardless, Chief has withstood the worst the Galaxy had to throw at him until now; he’s fought his own kind, he’s taken on armies of genocidal aliens with far more advanced technology, he’s taken on space zombies that want to annihilate all life, he’s lost his best friend while stopping yet another attempt on humanity’s existence, he’s fallen from orbit (twice), he’s battled a rogue sentience vowing allegiance to yet another rogue sentience. I think we can overlook a little fall damage not being present. Besides, what’s going to capitalize on you falling? If you’re going to jump straight off a cliff to plummet some 50+ meters or something, you’re likely not doing it to jump right into a firefight knowing there’s fall damage.
Then again if you’re Chief…Johnson did say that one of these days we were gonna land on something a lot more stubborn than we were. So there’s that.